Treatment and prevention of pandemic H1N1 influenza ('swine influenza')

h1n1 treatment

Anna R Thorner, MD

  • Deputy Editor — Infectious Diseases
  • Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine
  • Harvard Medical School

Elinor L Baron, MD, DTMH

  • Deputy Editor — Infectious Diseases
  • Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine
  • Tufts University School of Medicine

INTRODUCTION

In late March and early April 2009, an outbreak of H1N1 influenza A virus infection was detected in Mexico, with subsequent cases observed in many other countries, including the United States [1,2 ]. In June 2009, the World Health Organization raised its pandemic alert level to the highest level, phase 6, indicating widespread community transmission on at least two continents [3 ]. The pandemic was declared to be over in August 2010 [4 ].

The strategies used for the treatment and prevention of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus infection will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations,

and diagnosis of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus infection are discussed elsewhere. (See "Epidemiology of pandemic H1N1 influenza ('swine influenza')" and "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of pandemic H1N1 influenza ('swine influenza')" .)

TREATMENT

The following section discusses the agents that were used during the 2009 to 2010 H1N1 influenza A pandemic. Recommendations for the treatment of seasonal influenza are presented separately. (See "Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults" and "Seasonal influenza in children: Prevention and treatment with antiviral drugs", section on 'Antiviral therapy' .)

Antiviral agents

Oseltamivir or zanamivir  — During the 2009 to 2010 H1N1 influenza A pandemic, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released guidelines for the use of antivirals for patients with confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection [5 ]. For most patients with confirmed or suspected influenza infection requiring treatment, a neuraminidase inhibitor (orally inhaled zanamivir or oral oseltamivir) was recommended. These medications are discussed in detail elsewhere. (See "Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults" and "Pharmacology of antiviral drugs for influenza" .)

Similar articles: